XML - A language for Content Management
by Olle Olsson(olleo @ sics.se)
Table of contents
- XML - A language for content management
- Presentation parts
- Part 1
- Evolution: Technology
- Evolution: Management
- Content management
- Content - characteristics
- Content vs document mgmt
- Content representation
- Part 2
- XML - the ASCII of the future
- XML and W3C
- Some W3C standards
- Some XML-based standards
- Part 3
- Content conceptualisation/1
- Content conceptualisation/2
- Metadata and XML
- Metadata objects
- Fulfilling requirements
- Part 4
- Using content
- Using content: publishing
- Selecting content
- Combining content
- Formatting content / 1
- Formatting content / 2
- Using content: database
- Database access to content
- Using content: flow
- Communicating programs
- Part 5
- Semantic Web
- Information & semantics
- Semantics:what can you do
- Objects - types - taxonomies
- Technology layers
- Semantic Web technologies
- Part 6
Generated: Mon Dec 10 15:57:16 GMT+01:00 2001
XML - A language for content management
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Presentation at "XML-enabled Content Management"
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
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- Content management - from where to when
- XML - W3C and standards
- Content - conceptualisation and requirements
- Content use - components of technology
- Semantic Web - towards intelligent content management
Content ManagementFrom where to when
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Evolution: technology & business
|(70's)||Databases||Database design & management|
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Evolution: technology & business
|years||management categories||critical activities|
|(90's)||Knowledge management||acquisition, structuring, use|
|(90's)||Content management||collection, organisation, publishing|
|(80's)||Document management||creation, versioning, releasing|
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Content management as a business task:
- support efficient and high-quality business processes.
- content must evolve as business evolves.
- management of content is typically a decentralised activity.
Content - characteristics
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- represents information
- is a (small) piece of information
- has structure and description
- has relations to other content
Content vs document mgmt
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|Content mgmt||Document mgmt|
|fine-grained assets||large-grained assets|
|several assets to satisfy need||one asset per identified need|
|reuse enabled||reuse difficult|
|new needs may be simpler to support||new needs not easily supported|
|update localised||update may need global changes|
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- representation format matching information structure
- needs uniform basic representation technology
- must enable inter-enterprise information exchange
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XML - the ASCII of the future
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XML - a technology for information representation:
- enables definition of object types ("XML documents")
- fully generic: all kinds of object types can be defined
- serves as a platform for a large set of specialized representational languages
XML and W3C
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- XML has been defined by W3C, the World Wide Web Consortium.
- W3C develops standards for the Web.
- Work is done in working groups, staffed by representatives of commercial companies.
- Results are developed through a consensus-based process.
Some W3C standards
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- PNG (Portable Network Graphics)
- CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
- PICS (Platform for Internet Content Selection)
- SMIL (Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language)
Some XML-based standards
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- XML Query
- XML Schema
- XML Signature
- XSL / XSLT
ContentConceptualisation and requirements
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- Pieces of content must be described.
- Described by metadata.
- Metadata exist at a level above data (the data of the content pieces).
- Understand what the piece of content contains by inspecting its metadata.
- Needs an open language for expressing metadata.
Metadata and XML
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- Define your types of content pieces as types of XML objects (XML DTD, XML Schema)
- Metadata objects are instances of these types.
- Metadata objects either
- points to its content piece, or
- directly represents the content piece.
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- Metadata objects express what the content pieces contain.
- Search for content pieces by search among metadata objects.
- Generic search engines can be used.
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Metadata representations must:
- be generic - wide applicability
- support evolution - changes must be easily accommodated
- be open - support decentralisation/virtual enterprises
- be effective - have efficient implementations
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Choosing an XML-approach:
- based on a verified foundation
- based on a standard
- based on a globally adopted standard
- enables mappings between different representations.
Using contentComponents of technology.
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Different categories of use:
- source of data ("database")
- decision support
- controlling processes
- communication flow between programs
Using content: publishing
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- selection of content pieces
- combination of content pieces
- formatting for external use
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Selection by query:
- query expresses requirements
- evaluate query on a content repository
- resulting content pieces returned
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Combine set of content pieces:
- content pieces inserted into a structure
- old pieces may be transformed/replaced
- new pieces may be inserted
Formatting content / 1
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- publication in target format:
- data for use in process
- storage in other content repository
Formatting content / 2
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Formatting entails transformation
- representation-1 --> representation-2
- expressed through rules
- consistency via standard rule sets
- XSLT / XML Formatting objects
Using content: database
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Content repository as source of data:
- analogous to database technology/use
- recipient of result typically a program
- avoids duplicated representation
Database access to content
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Software access to content repository:
- query repository
- format result for program's use
Using content: flow
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Communication between programs:
- programs exchange information
- information exchanged = content pieces
- use same conceptualisation as for content
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Program-to-program info exchange involves:
- transform internal --> external format
- transform external --> internal format
- RDF, Web Services, XML Protocol
Semantic WebThe next step towards intelligent use of web-oriented
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Semantic Web goal:
- "machine-understandable information"
- machine-accessible representation of information
- meaning of information ("semantics") is in general not accessible
Information & semantics
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- "A phone of type A costs $45.00"
- TYPE=type-A-phone, PRICE=45.00
- <product type="type-A-phone" price="45.00"/>
- representation of single objects is not all!
Semantics:what can you do
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- An objects is of some type.
- Types of objects must be defined.
- Definitions use concepts.
- Concepts are the glue that binds it all together
Objects - types - taxonomies
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- An ontology is the expressed definition of the concepts in a domain.
- Ontologies form the basis for the metadata descriptions of business objects (including content assets)
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Semantic Web technologies
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- The semantic web requires competent technologies/mechanisms.
- These mechanisms will be of use in other domains.
- Content management (and knowledge management) are prime examples of such domains.
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Find more information about W3C standards at: